Scholar articles for background information and insights on historical Japanese topics depicted in Shôninki (English only - note that this material is not available for free, if interested contact the appropriate online magazine or buy through jstor):

How the Japanese wolf as depicted in Shôninki‘s chapter study of foxes and wolves was regarded during Edo period

Knight, John: On the Extinction of the Japanese Wolf. Asian Folklore Studies, Vol. 56, No. 1 1997, pp. 129-159.

Bushidô, as known nowadays, as a concept developed not before the beginning of the 20th century in contrast to the philosophy described in Shôninki

Hurst, Cameron G.: Death, Honor and Loyality - The Bushidô Ideal. Philosophy East and West, Vol. 40, No. 4, Understanding Japanese Values, 1990, pp 511-527.

Why connections between Ninjutsu and Shûgendô lore or doctrine are mere fiction

Gorai, Shigeru: Shûgendô Lore. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 1989 16/2-3, pp 117-142.

Why the Tokugawa Shogunate needed investigators... for collecting taxes and drawing maps

Brown, Philip C.: The Mismeasure of Land. Land Surveying in the Tokugawa Period. Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 42, No. 2 1987, pp 115-155

Kawamura, Hirotada: Kuni-ezu (Provincial Maps) Compiled by the Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan. Imago Mundi, Vol. 41 1989, pp. 70-76.

Answers by a historical investigator (metsuke)

Beerens, Anna: Interview with a Bakumatsu Official - A Translation from Kyuji Shimonroku. Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 55, No. 3, (Autumn, 2000), pp. 369-398.

A classic on mudras common for most Buddhist schools... and why they lack in Shôninki and other Ninjutsu scrolls

Saunders, E. Dale: Symbolic Gestures in Buddhism. Artibus Asiae, Vol. 21, No. 1 1958, pp. 47-63.

Saunders, E. Dale: Mudrâ - A Study of Symbolic Gestures in Japanese Buddhist Sculpture. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1985.

Basic article on Shintô that incorporated beliefs derived from Buddhism, Taoism or other Chinese influences and it‘s reciprocal impact on these beliefs in Japan

Kuroda, Toshio: Shinto in the History of Japanese Religion. Journal of Japanese Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1981, pp 1-21.

Blood revenge in Edo period Japan - official form of vigilantism in the name of honor

Mills, D.E.: Kataki-Uchi - The Practice of Blood-Revenge in Pre-Modern Japan. Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 10, No. 4 1976, pp. 525-524. - Copyright 2014

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